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Beneficiation Process.

The operation includes crushing and sieving, grinding and grading. The main purpose is to make useful minerals and gangue minerals, useful minerals and useful minerals separate from each other, to achieve monomer separation, preparation for sorting operations. Sometimes the preparation job is to divide the material into several appropriate granularity and prepare it for the sorting job.

1, the crushing of ore

The ore blocks from the mines are very large. At present, the maximum size of open-pit mining is 1000mm~1500mm, and the maximum size of mined ore is 300mm~600mm, so the ore cannot be selected directly, because the useful minerals and useful minerals, useful minerals and gangue minerals are closely symbiotic. In order for them to separate from each other, that is to achieve monomer separation, ore sent to the plant, the first ore crushing to a certain size, and then into the grinding machine grinding. The type of crusher used in concentrator mainly depends on the nature of ore, the production capacity of concentrator and the granularity of crushing products, etc. The coarse crushing operations of ores are usually made of jaw crusher or cycle crusher. Crushed and finely used standard and short head cone Crusher, in a few cases, there is also the use of roller crusher broken. Treatment of loose ores (such as clay ore or coal mines) is usually broken by a crushing crusher (such as an impact crusher and a hammer shredder).

2, the Ore sieving 

The process of separating loose materials into different grain levels through a sieve is called sieving in the concentrator, and most of the sieving is combined with the crushing operation. Before the ore enters a crushing machine, the sieving of the qualified product which has been in accordance with the required granularity is known as pre sieving. It can not only prevent the ore from the crushing, but also high crusher productivity. When the ore contains high moisture and more powder ore, can also avoid the crushing machine. When the ore through the crushing machine, the application of screening to check the size of broken products, so that the unqualified large ore particles back to crushing operations, again broken, this screening is called screening screening. It can give full play to the ability of the crusher.

3, Grinding

Grinding is the continuation of the process of ore crushing, the purpose of which is to make all or most of the useful mineral particles in the ore to the monomer separation, in order to carry out the selection, and to meet the requirements of the operation of the size of the separation.

Grinding operations are usually carried out in a cylindrical mill, which is generally fitted with abrasive media such as steel balls, steel rods or gravel, etc. The grinding machine for the steel ball (or iron ball) is a ball mill, the steel rod is a rod mill, and the gravel is a gravel mill. If the mill is not installed in other media, only the use of ore grinding themselves, is called a media-free grinding machine or grinding machine, and then add the right amount of steel balls in the mill to constitute the so-called half self grinder. The specifications of the mill are indicated by the diameter of the barrel multiplied by the length.

Grinding operations mainly wet grinding, and generally with the mechanical classifier composed of closed-circuit cycle, but for water scarcity areas and some bogey water process (such as cement plant, asbestos factory production process or some dry process), there are dry grinding ore. No matter which type of grinding machine to grind, in the grinding process, their principle of action is basically the same. Is the use of media (or ore itself) to the grinding material impact and grinding.

4, Grading

In the medium (gas or air), the process by which the material is divided into several granularity levels according to its settling velocity is called grading. Grading and sieving are the same, all lie in dividing the ore particle group into different granularity level, but their working principle and the product's grain size characteristic are different. The sieving is strictly separated according to the geometrical granularity (sieve hole size), and the grading is separated according to the different settling velocities in the medium.

In the grinding operation, the grading work is usually used in order to distinguish the qualified material in time, which can avoid the product from being worn out and improve the grinding efficiency. The grading equipment used in the grinding operation of concentrator is mechanical classifier and hydrocyclone. At present, the most widely used mechanical classifier is spiral classifier, as for rake classifier, floating trough classifier, etc.has gradually eliminated. In the tungsten and tin gravity separation plant, in order to reduce the grinding process of the past crushing is often used sieve and rod mill constitute closed circuit. The application of fine sieve and grinding operation has been paid more and more attention recently. Here only the use of grinding operations with the most used spiral classifier and hydrocyclone. The contents of the hydraulic classification will be described in the chapter on the re-election law.

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